Citation Needed Main Article: Acupuncture § criticism Of Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory Clinical Use Of Acupressure Frequently Relies On The Conceptual Framework Of Traditional Chinese Medicine Acm.

For.n.n-depth.ocus.n.his.opic,.ee Acupressure for Emotional Healing: A Self-Care Guide for Trauma, Stress & Common Emotional Imbalances by Michael Reed Bach, Ph.D., with 500 illustrations of emotional healing applications. This can lessen the appearance of wrinkles without drugs or surgery. It involves inserting needles to stimulate points on the outer ear . 64 The modern approach was developed in France during the early 1950s. 64 There is no scientific evidence that it can cure disease; the evidence of effectiveness is negligible. 64 Scalp acupuncture, developed in Japan, is based on reflexological considerations regarding the scalp . Learn how to heal the body by sending life energy also known as Reiko through the acupressure points. One of the most common uses is to relieve pain, such as headaches and neck and back pain . Acupuncture became the most popular alternative medicine in the US. 258 Politicians from the Chinese Communist Party said acupuncture was superstitious and conflicted with the party's commitment to science. 277 Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong later reversed this position, 277 arguing that the practice was based on scientific principles. 278 In 1971, a New York Times reporter published an article on his acupuncture experiences in China, which led to more investigation of and support for acupuncture. 28 The US President Richard Nixon visited China in 1972 . 279 During one part of the visit, the delegation was shown a patient undergoing major surgery while fully awake, ostensibly receiving acupuncture rather than anaesthesia . 279 Later it was found that the patients selected for the surgery had both a high pain tolerance and received heavy indoctrination before the operation; these demonstration cases were also frequently receiving morphine surreptitiously through an intravenous drip that observers were told contained only fluids and nutrients. 279 One patient receiving open heart surgery while awake was ultimately found to have received a combination of three powerful sedatives as well as large injections of a local aesthetic into the wound. 58 After the National Institute of Health expressed support for acupuncture for a limited number of conditions, adoption in the US grew further. 28 In 1972 the first legal acupuncture canter in the US was established in Washington DC 280 and in 1973 the American Internal Revenue Service allowed acupuncture to be deducted as a medical expense. 281 In 2006, a BBC documentary Alternative Medicine filmed a patient undergoing open heart surgery allegedly under acupuncture-induced anaesthesia. The study also includes warnings against practising acupuncture on infants, as well as on acupuncture fertility children who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have overeaten. 238 When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a 2011 review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of paediatric acupuncture. 5 The same review found 279 adverse events, 25 of them serious. 5 The adverse events were mostly mild in nature e.g. bruising or bleeding. 5 The prevalence of mild adverse events ranged from 10.1% to 13.5%, an estimated 168 incidences among 1,422 patients. 5 On rare occasions adverse events were serious e.g. cardiac rupture or hemoptysis ; much might have been a result of substandard practice. 5 The incidence of serious adverse events was 5 per one million, which included children and adults. 5 When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. 239 The most frequent mild adverse event was needling or unspecified pain, followed by bleeding. 239 Although two deaths one stillbirth and one neonatal death were reported, there was a lack of acupuncture-associated maternal mortality. 239 Limiting the evidence as certain, probable or possible in the causality evaluation, the estimated incidence of adverse events following acupuncture in pregnant women was 131 per 10,000. 239 Although acupuncture is not contraindicated in pregnant women, some specific acupuncture points are particularly sensitive to needle insertion; these spots, as well as the abdominal region, should be avoided during pregnancy. 2 Four adverse events associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. 17 Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. 17 The minor ones were keloid scarring, burns, and bullae ; 17 the serious ones were acquired haemophilia A, stroke following cupping on the back and neck, factitious panniculitis, reversible cardiac hypertrophy, and iron deficiency anaemia . 17 A 2013 meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where co morbid depression presented. 20 The same meta-analysis found there was no difference between sham and non-sham acupuncture. 20 A 2011 systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 21 A 2010 systematic review found that the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture could not be concluded. 94 A 2012 review found that acupuncture seems to be cost-effective for some pain conditions. 240 Risk of forgoing conventional medical care As with other alternative medicines, unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. 7 241 Profession ethical codes set by accrediting organizations such as the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine require practitioners to make “timely referrals to other health care professionals as may be appropriate.” 242 Stephen Barrett states that there is a “risk that an acupuncturist whose approach to diagnosis is not based on scientific concepts will fail to diagnose a dangerous condition”. 243 Main articles: Qi, Traditional Chinese medicine, Meridian Chinese medicine, and Acupuncture point Old Chinese medical chart of acupuncture meridians Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine ACM. 6 Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in ACM, such as a life force energy called qi. 244 Qi was believed to flow from the body's primary organs zang-fu organs to the “superficial” body tissues of the skin, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints, citation needed through channels called meridians. 245 Acupuncture points where needles are inserted are mainly but not always found at locations along the meridians. 246 Acupuncture points not found along a meridian are called extraordinary points and those with no designated site are called “A-shi” points. 246 In ACM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians, and of the interaction between the body and the environment. 247 Therapy is based on which “pattern of disharmony” can be identified. 248 249 For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. 250 In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners examine things like the colon and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing, or the sound of the voice. 251 252 ACM and its concept of disease does not strongly differentiate between the cause and effect of symptoms. 253 Scientific research has not supported the existence of qi, meridians, or yin and yang. n 1 25 26 A Nature editorial described ACM as “fraught with pseudo-science”, with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action . 254 Quackwatch states that “ACM theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. If that is impossible, then practice at least 2-3 times a week. 10 Applying Acupressure Correctly Use the right amount of force. If you don't feel any effects, then try different spots. ERM reviewer bandoleer said that P6 in two studies showed 52% of patients with control having a success, compared with 75% with P6. 9 Quackwatch includes acupressure in a list of methods which have no “rational place” as massage therapy and states that practitioners “may also use irrational diagnostic methods to reach diagnoses that do not correspond to scientific concepts of health and disease.” 3 A variant system known as two point acupressure attempts to bypass a blockage of vital flow by using one acupoint to create a link with one of the collateral meridians, and then using one additional acupoint to stimulate or reduce the flow around the obstruction. citation needed Main article: Acupuncture § Criticism of traditional Chinese medicine theory Clinical use of acupressure frequently relies on the conceptual framework of Traditional Chinese Medicine ACM. If left untreated, they can continue for years. Check out our laminated acupressure charts. A skilled Acupressurist channels Chi or Qi energy throughout the body.  Releasing the point gradually is believed to allow the tissues to heal by giving them time to respond to the release in pressure. In contrast, martial artists cultivate their energy internally, but use the life force externally for self-defence and physical power. For a pressure point reference and a self-care guide for common complaints from A to Z, see Acupressure's Potent Points by Michael Reed Bach, Ph.D., with 400 illustrations and over a hundred self-acupressure healing applications. As you continually manipulate a point, you may feel a lack of pain as it begins to heal. When you press the area, you are reinforcing it.

There is no scientific consensus on how acupressure might work. March 12, 2014 12 You know – laughter is definitely healing. Not all Western practitioners believe that this is possible or even that these meridians exist. The way energy flows through the meridians presides over wellness or disease.  Use Liver 3.

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